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study-australiaIs your son considering going abroad in Australia for completing his higher studies? Then don’t panic much! Certainly your son needs to go through some details before enrolling his name in Australian universities. Some of such important information is mentioned in this article for your benefit, just read it out!

First let’s talk about the fee structure of Australian universities. The fee structure of under-graduate programmes offered by the university of Western Australia ranges between $ 20000 AUD and $25000 AUD. for post graduate programme, your fee structure can range between $10000 AUD and $4500 AUD approximately depending on the course that you opt for.

The cost of living in Perth is cheaper compared to studying and living in eastern part of Australia. The average cost of living in Perth is approximately AUD is $10000 and AUD $12000 per year. Tuition fees there range from $15400 AUD and $26400 AUD depending on the course.

Once your child is over with his or her studies, they can opt for a work permit in Australia that can enable them to work twenty hours per week during the study periods and full time during semester breaks. Great! Isn’t it? Thus, a person gets benefited by the process of earning while learning. The typical pay scale that ranges for work falls between $15-20 AUD per hour.

Remember that Australian student visa formalities are divided into two parts. The first one known as Pre Visa Assessment. For completing the fist stage, you need to prepare yourself for the following prerequisites like good academics, proficient in English, funds to cover your living expenditure. The second stage is known as Final Visa Stamping which requires sound health, a genuine applicant accepted for a full-time course of study etc.

Hope the above points help you in finding a good study destination for yourself.

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The University of South Australia
The University of South Australia (UniSA) is a truly international university that is successful in striking a balance between knowledge and application. Spread over five campuses in central Adelaide and the regional city of Whyalla, it’s one of Australia’s largest institutions offering more than 200 postgraduate and 140 undergraduate programs.

Its international students are extremely well-catered for. International student advisers are located on each of the four metropolitan campuses, while UniSA also has specifically-designed services to assist with orientation, accommodation, counselling and English language support.

Fast facts
It’s all about: UniSA graduates not only leave with a degree – they graduate ready to succeed in their chosen profession or to progress to a career in research.
Total students: 31,450
Total international students: 8,700
Teaching staff: 2,500
Yearly course fees: A$12,500 to A$19,300
Renowned for: An innovative approach to teaching and research that is both economically and socially relevant.
www.unisa.edu.au

The University of Adelaide
Australia’s third oldest university has a prestigious record of achievement, and is known internationally for its research and research training. Its five faculties are supported by state-of-the-art teaching laboratories and classrooms, and it also has an outstanding teaching and research library of more than two million items.

The university has been welcoming students to Adelaide for more than 60 years – in fact, its peer mentor program for new overseas students was last year voted the best of its kind in Australia.

Fast facts
It’s all about: 132 years of learning and teaching; Adelaide’s oldest university produces outstanding graduates recognised for their creativity, knowledge and leadership qualities.
Total students: 19,646
Total international students: 4,925
Teaching staff: 1,207
Yearly course fees: A$14,000-A$33,900
Renowned for: being among the world’s finest universities; association with five Nobel Prize winners and 100 Rhodes Scholars; alumni who have become national and international leaders in government, business, the professions, and many fields of science and technology.
www.adelaide.edu.au

Flinders University
One of Flinders University’s greatest strengths is the quality of its teaching. The university has won national recognition in 2006 and 2004: the Prime Minister’s Award for University Teaching. Courses are supported by strong links between teaching and research. Flinders consistently ranks among Australia’s top universities on a per capita basis for research spending, and for the citation of our work in scientific and professional journals.

The International Student Services Unit provides all services to international students, from airport pickup to ongoing academic and social welfare support. The only on-campus accommodation in Adelaide overlooks the city and the sea and provides for catered accommodation in University Hall or more independent living.

Fast facts
It’s all about: cutting-edge courses taught by award-winning teaching staff to produce top graduates.
Total students: 15,923
Total international students: 3,379
Teaching staff: 712
Yearly course fees: A$14,000-A$39,000
Renowned for: innovative world-class research; biotechnology; nanotechnology; student satisfaction. In the last six years, over 90% of students expressed satisfaction with their overall Flinders experience (Graduate Careers Council of Australia Course Experience Questionnaire).
www.flinders.edu.au

Carnegie Mellon University
Just over a year ago, Australia’s first foreign university, Carnegie Mellon University, opened its doors in Adelaide – offering US degrees from Australia. It’s consistently ranked among the top universities in the world, and as a result, its graduates are highly sought by organisations in all sectors.

The H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management has an international reputation for excellence in educational programs and faculty research. The Heinz School is consistently ranked among the top 10 public policy programs in the US and is ranked first in information technology.

Fast facts
It’s all about: problem-solving, collaboration and innovation.
Total students: 71
Total international students: 20
Teaching staff: 7
Renowned for: giving graduates the ability to work in teams, tackle unstructured problems, work with ambiguity and produce results under tight deadlines – the same demands that organisations will place on them during their careers.
www.heinz.cmu.edu/australia

TAFE South Australia
TAFE stands for Technical and Further Education and its here that you’ll get qualifications from certificates to advanced diplomas and degrees, in everything from beauty therapy and fashion design to hospitality and engineering.

TAFE South Australia is a group of 54 campuses offering a huge range of vocational education and training (VET) courses, designed to provide real and relevant work skills. Qualifications are valued highly by workplaces around the world, but they can also see you safely into university.

Fast facts
It’s all about: learning, gaining work skills and enrichment.
Total students: 80,000
Total international students: 1,000
Teaching staff: 4,300
Yearly course fees: A$8,000-A$21,750
Renowned for: ELICOS; interpreting and translating; hospitality, cookery and food science; business and financial services; tourism; accounting; nursing; engineering; horticulture and community welfare.
www.tafe.sa.edu.au

And then there’s:

Foundation studies: If you need extra qualifications to meet university entry requirements, Adelaide-based Foundation Studies and Pathway Programs might be the way to go. www.studyadelaide.com

Hospitality and Hotel Management: Adelaide is home to two of Australia’s most prestigious hotel management schools: the International College of Hotel Management (ICHM) and Le Cordon Bleu (LCB). www.ichm.edu.au or www.lecordonbleu.com.au

English language: Adelaide has full-time English Language courses (both beginner and advanced) running from one to 48 weeks. English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS) are especially popular, with some courses tailored towards specific fields such as tourism, IT and business. www.studyadelaide.com

School education: Adelaide’s government and nongovernment schools have an outstanding reputation, and an excellent history of providing high quality educational opportunities to overseas students. Young people who complete their secondary education (age 17) receive the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) which is highly regarded by tertiary institutions around the globe. Adelaide’s International Baccalaureate program is one of the world’s largest.

www.internationalstudents.sa.edu.au
www.ais.sa.edu.au
www.ceo.adl.catholic.edu.au

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Truett Cates was scanning a wall of study abroad brochures across from his desk. “Let me put on my bifocals here — just a quick impression — I see one brochure for Australia and New Zealand, which has one guy on the cover of it,” said Cates, the director of study abroad and January term, and a professor of German, at Austin College. “Of course, if you’re a guy who doesn’t do languages, Australia and New Zealand are attractive and you can do guy things like kayaking and bungee jumping and so forth, pub crawling.”

“Some of them do have groups of students which are like, five girls and one guy, or three girls – or I guess also pictures of girls that attract guys. Maybe that’s part of it,” Cates continued.

“What I’ve done is look at all the brochures that the providers, the third-party providers, put out, and in the brochures and the nice color photographs they use to sell their programs, it’s almost all women and I ask them, ‘Why do they do that?’ They say it’s just a marketing decision; that’s who our customers are.”

It’s truth in advertising. Take Austin, for example, which, at about 80 percent, sends one of the highest proportions of its students abroad. But even with that critical mass, out of 390 total in 2006-7, 248 were women and 142 were men (like at many liberal arts colleges, Austin’s overall undergraduate population skews somewhat female, but not to the same degree).

In recent years, as study abroad has ballooned across the nation, fueled by growth in short-term programs and increasing diversity in participating students’ majors and destinations, a 2-to-1 female-to-male ratio has stayed remarkably stagnant. In 2006-7, the most recent year for which data are available, 65.1 percent of Americans studying abroad were women, and 34.9 percent men. A decade earlier — when the total number of study abroad students was less than half its current total — the breakdown was 64.9 percent female, 35.1 percent male, according to Institute of International Education Open Doors statistics.

“I wouldn’t put it up there among the top issues or problems in the field, but I think it’s a puzzlement, to use an old term, and it’s sort of a persistent consideration, a persistent sort of annoying feeling that there’s something not right about it,” said William Hoffa, an independent practitioner in study abroad, retired from Amherst College, who wrote a history of study abroad and is now editing a second volume.

“Initially the problem was perceived to be curricular, meaning the curriculum of study abroad was likely to be in the humanities, social sciences, with a strong language dimension. To the degree that women were more likely to study in those areas, and the curriculum of study abroad was in those areas, it meant men that were studying more in science and business and technologies didn’t have the curriculum overseas,” said Hoffa. He continued, however, that while there’s likely still a bias toward the humanities and social sciences in study abroad, “The curriculum of study abroad is actually pretty much across the spectrum these days.”

The most popular majors among study abroad participants are, according to IIE, the social sciences, then business and management, and humanities third. Participation among students in the physical and life sciences jumped 14.5 percent in 2006-7, in engineering by 13.1 percent. The overall gender breakdown, meanwhile, has basically stayed flat.

“To some degree,” said Hoffa, “it can’t just be the curriculum.”

Disproportional Representation

The persistent gender gap is regularly described as an object of interest in the field — if not an object of intense concern compared to, for instance, the similarly stagnant and low numbers of racial minorities studying abroad. (“I’ve made myself a little unpopular occasionally when I’ve been in sessions on under-represented groups in study abroad and I bring up the issue of men in study abroad,” Hoffa said.)

There are lots of theories, but a sense that, in sum, they don’t satisfactorily explain the phenomenon. There are a few studies and surveys, but not a deep research basis to draw from. “It still does exist as a good research piece for somebody to delve more closely into,” said Steven W. Shirley, president of Valley City State University, in North Dakota. Shirley did his dissertation on differences in how male and female students perceive study abroad. In short, he said, the differences he found were few.

So to begin at the beginning: The study abroad gender gap can only begin to be understood against the backdrop of gendered enrollments in higher education more generally.

According to an October report from the U.S. Department of Education, 58 percent of four-year degrees awarded in 2006-7 went to women, and 42 percent to men (most students studying abroad are coming from four-year colleges). Meanwhile, according to an analysis of Department of Education data conducted by IIE, overall female enrollment in higher education rose by 27 percent from 1995 to 2005, compared to 18 percent growth for males.

Given this backdrop, “it’s not surprising that the percentage of males in study abroad has not gotten higher,” said Peggy Blumenthal, IIE’s executive vice president. “They’re holding their own in study abroad even while their percentage of higher education enrollment is not growing as fast as females.

“That being said, still we need to work harder to make sure that men do get equal opportunities to study abroad and feel that they can go abroad, whatever their major.”

The data suggest that, overall enrollment numbers aside, and for whatever reasons, women are more drawn to study abroad than men. Even in a field where men substantially outnumber women — engineering — study abroad’s particular appeal to female students shines through, in this case all the more dramatically. The National Science Foundation reports that men earn 80 percent of bachelor’s degrees in engineering. But women’s participation in a study abroad consortium for engineers, the Global Engineering Education Exchange, typically ranges from 30 to nearly 40 percent (39.3 percent this academic year) — far outstripping their 20 percent representation in the field.

“The women appear to exceed the men in terms of their interest in going abroad,” said Lester Gerhardt, a professor of electrical, computer and systems engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and chair of the study abroad consortium’s board. “Where do you go from there? You wonder the reasons why.”

‘A Female Thing’

Among the many conventional wisdom-type explanations pervading in the study abroad field: differing maturity and risk-taking levels among 18- to 21-year-old men and women; a sense that females, concerned about safety, are more inclined to attend a college-sanctioned study abroad program than travel on their own; and, again, varying study abroad participation rates in male versus female-dominated fields.

The latter is not the seemingly clear explanation it once was, but many still see it as a contributing factor. At the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, for instance, 141 students in the Institute of Technology studied abroad last year, and 92 were male. “That’s still not a great overall participation number” – Minnesota sends 1,200 from the College of Liberal Arts, most of them women – “but theoretically if you improve participation in that group, suddenly you’d be changing the gender breakdown,” said Martha Johnson, interim director of the Learning Abroad Center.

Inside Higher Ed contacted several universities sending some of the largest numbers of total students abroad to see how their gender breakdowns have changed as their numbers have grown. Their answers? Not much.

For instance, at the University of Florida in 2007-8, 1,408 women (63 percent) went abroad, and 814 men (37 percent), for a total of 2,222. The proportions were nearly identical in 2000-1, when the total was just 1,367, according to data provided by Susanne Hill, interim executive associate director of Florida’s International Center and study abroad services coordinator. Female representation within the overall university enrollment changed from 52 to 53 percent in that time.

The University of Georgia in 2003-4 sent abroad 1,008 females and 526 males (and 38 students whose gender was not identified). In 2007-8, there were 1,428 females and 664 males, with 9 unidentified, according to Kasee Clifton Laster, director of study abroad. “My impression is that the proportion by gender has been rather consistent over time, even as participation overall has grown quickly and participation in certain subgroups (for example, at UGA, graduate and professional students such as law students) has grown even faster,” Laster said in an e-mail.

Particularly perplexing to some is that the large growth in short-term study abroad programs, which now make up 55.4 percent of the market (IIE data again), hasn’t led to a shift in the gender balance. Presumably, these programs address some of the conventional explanations for the gender imbalance: They’re generally less risky, and summer programs are often ideal for curricularly-restricted, mostly male engineering students, to take an example.

Nationally, there are no data about gender breakdown by duration of program. But at one institution, Wofford College, in South Carolina, the gender balance in short-term programs is close to 50-50, skewing just slightly female. Whereas, this fall, 30 Wofford women are abroad on semester-long programs compared to 10 men, according to Ana María Wiseman, the dean of international programs. “On our campus, if a certain topic is popular, you might get just a group of students enthused to go on a certain short-term program… whereas [longer-term] study abroad is very much an individual decision.”

Speaking from a somewhat unique perspective, David Clapp, director of the Office of International Students and Off-Campus Study at Wabash College, an all-male liberal arts college in Indiana, said his students seem liberated from almost subliminal stereotypes about study abroad that he noticed at a coed college where he used to work. “My study abroad students [there] were heavily female, and I think that there may be an impression that young men get when they’re at a coed university or college that that’s a female thing to do.”

Expectations and Experience

So why do female students do it? In her master’s research in cultural anthropology, Jill McKinney focused on female students’ decision-making in regards to study abroad. “The three main factors I found were motherhood, age and safety,” said McKinney, associate director of the Center for Global Education at Butler University. “Essentially, my informants shared with me that they really hope someday to be mothers and they can’t imagine being able to travel abroad and also be a mom. So if they’re going to have an overseas experience, they’re going to do it before they become mothers,” she said, adding that her informants “really felt plagued by the age of 30. They have a very long to-do list.”

On safety matters, “if females wanted to go abroad, they [felt they] needed to do it in a sanctioned manner,” said McKinney.

“I directed programs in Africa for about 10 years, semester programs. I would say that it was 90 percent women and 10 percent men each semester,” said Charlotte Blessing, now the director of international programs at Colorado College. “We were theorizing that parents are more comfortable sending young college girl students to a program in Africa where there is a structure set up… it’s not independent travel. Whereas they’re more likely to say to a young guy you can travel on your own.”

“The further from the sort of comfort-zone area [outside Western Europe, for instance]… the more likely that females will be in that program,” said Michael Vande Berg, vice president for academic affairs at the Council on International Educational Exchange. In a research project that spanned 61 study abroad programs and about 1,300 students, Vande Berg has found differing outcomes among the men and women who do choose to study abroad. For instance, on a test of intercultural development, females on average start higher, with a score of 97.19 on a pre-test. They finish at 100.94. By contrast, and of concern, males actually lose ground from pre-test to post-test, their average scores dropping from 94.31 to 93.81.

“Sort of the nicest thing you can say about the males is that difference, going mathematically from the first test to the second test, is not significantly different. That is, the good thing you can say about males is they’re not learning anything interculturally,” said Vande Berg, who has argued the need for targeted mentoring and intervention to improve students’ learning outcomes abroad.

Tying his findings on gendered outcomes to the participation trends, Vande Berg asked, “What is it that students expect study abroad to be? Is it the case that male students are expecting study abroad to be a different experience than female students? And if so, are those expectations getting in the way of learning where the male students are concerned?”

Source : http://insidehighered.com/news/2008/12/04/genderabroad

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majority of international students in Australia are full-fee paying students. There is intense competition for the international student scholarships offered in Australia.

International students can apply for scholarships offered by the Australian Government, education institutions and a number of other organisations. Scholarships offered cover various educational sectors including vocational and technical education, student exchanges, undergraduate and postgraduate study and research. Australian Government scholarships are not available for international students undertaking English language training specifically in Australia. However, there are several English language training scholarships offered by Australian institutions.

Australian Scholarships

Australian Scholarships is an initiative of the Australian Government that brings together and expands existing scholarship programmes in the Asia-Pacific region managed by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST). Australian Scholarships also introduces a new AusAID managed programme – Australian Leadership Awards. Further information can be found at: http://www.australianscholarships.gov.au/

A brief overview of each of the component programmes of Australian Scholarships follows:

Endeavour Programme

The Endeavour Programme brings together under one umbrella all of the Department of Education, Science and Training’s (DEST) international education scholarships. The Endeavour Programme showcases the excellence of Australia’s education, science and training sectors by bringing high achieving students, researchers and professionals to Australia to undertake short or long term study, research and professional development in a broad range of disciplines. It also encourages Australians to do the same abroad. Further information can be found at: http://www.endeavour.dest.gov.au/

Australian Leadership Awards

The Australian Leadership Awards (ALAs) focus on developing leaders who can influence social and economic policy reform and development outcomes in both their own countries and in the Asia-Pacific region. ALAs provide support for scholarships for post-graduate studies in Australia and short-term fellowship opportunities in specialised research, study or professional attachments through participating Australian organisations. Further information can be found at: http://www.ausaid.gov.au/scholar

Australian Development Scholarships

Australian Development Scholarships (ADS) aim to contribute to the long-term development needs of Australia’s partner countries to promote good governance, economic growth and human development. ADS provide people with the necessary skills and knowledge to drive change and influence the development outcomes of their own country, through obtaining tertiary qualifications at participating Australian institutions. Further information can be found at: http://www.ausaid.gov.au/scholar

Other funding sources for Australia

International and charitable organisations offer scholarships for international study. You must apply for these scholarships in your home country, not in Australia.

The Association of Commonwealth Universities website provides a scholarships guide for Commonwealth postgraduate students offered by Governments, Rotary International, World Bank, World Health Organisation, Asian Development Bank, United Nations, Rockefeller Foundation and other organisations.

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Nowadays kids are wanting more and more out of their college experience. Gone are the days when students cast their gaze within domestic boundaries while making plans for college. An increasing number of college students are factoring a semester abroad into their college agenda, and are venturing into further, more exotic lands than are usually trekked upon in the traditional European study abroad program, according to a recent article. Schools are expanding their abroad programs in order to meet their student bodies’ globetrotting desires. The Times article also says that a growing number of students are migrating to the Far East for abroad programs in China.

In the 2006-2007 academic year 11,064 students voyaged to China for their study abroad programs, while only 1,396 students made a similar journey abroad eleven years earlier in the 1995–1996 school year. In the 2006-2007 calendar year, 241,791 college students dispersed amongst various abroad sights throughout the world “with sharp increases in the numbers going to Argentina, South Africa, Ecuador and India, and declining numbers going to Australia and Costa Rica.”

Before going to the university, British students are encouraged to take a gap year out of school for travel and charity work, but America is too busy trying to shove everyone along through school so they can go out in the business world and succeed. America’s an ever prideful country whose arrogant notions and lack of deeply-embedded culture have traditionally led us to overlook the significance of such “sissy” endeavors. Why on God’s green earth wouldya ever go abroad when we got Budweiser, Stetson, and real football here in America?

The shift from twelve years at the same school in Oklahoma to NYU is plenty abroad for me, but especially for kids studying abroad can be a once in a lifetime opportunity and truly enlightening experience for a lot of students, especially ones which have never really left the States.

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Educational Travel as a Model for Responsible Tourism

My semester abroad experience in a small village on the island of Sumatra prompted me to begin research on the impacts of tourism in host communities. My classmates and I spent four of the most amazing, eye-opening months of our lives living, working, and studying alongside the Minangkabau people of Western Sumatra. While we benefitted greatly from the exchange, I wondered about the village after we left. Did the community also gain from the experience?

Tourism has been promoted as a possible answer to environmental, economic, and cultural losses. But tourism has also been shown to create its own profound problems. Educational travel, in the form of study abroad programs, appears to offer a model for responsible tourism, tourism that has the potential to avoid the problems inherent in traditional or “mass” tourism by providing real benefits to the hosts as well as to the participants in the programs.

Negative Effects of Tourism

Tourism, generally defined as temporary stays of people traveling primarily for leisure or recreational purposes, is often said to hold benefits for the destination communities–as an economic boost or even for environmental conservation. All too often, no such positive effects occur. Morever, both the local communities and the visitors are often disappointed with the outcome. For the visitors, the search for authenticity produces an unattainable paradox: As soon as tourists enter the scene the local people have to put on a show to satisfy tourists’ expectations; the tourists are then disappointed by the staged version of culture produced for them.

global_impact_study_abroad

As Transitions Abroad contributing editor Deborah McLaren points out in her recent book, Rethinking Tourism and Ecotravel: The Paving of Paradise and What You Can Do to Stop It (Kumarian Press, 1998), the unequal power relations between tourists and locals emerge in both economic exchanges and the exchange of knowledge. Because tourists are paying customers, they have “rights” in the host community. One result of this unequal power dynamic is that the tourists never get to know the locals in any meaningful manner; likewise, the locals’ view of the tourists is a very superficial one. One problem that stems from this lack of “real” contact between hosts and guests is the stereotyping and idealizing of cultures.

Benefits of Alternative Tourism

Alternative tourism can be characterized as a form of tourism consistent with natural, social, and community values which allow both hosts and guests to enjoy positive and worthwhile interaction and shared experiences. This implies contact between local communities and tourists in an equal exchange, with both sides benefitting. The interactions between visitors and locals should help develop a respect for other cultures, rather than romanticizing them. Student travelers can be seen as at least potentially responsible travelers because they are in the country for a longer period of time than tourists, either to attend university with host country nationals or to live with a family or both. In all of their interactions–with other students, professors, family members, and members of the community–the study abroad participants have the time and opportunity to develop meaningful relationships and to learn about the culture of the other.

Study Abroad as Alternative Tourism

Study abroad programs can be categorized into two broad types. The first is traditional study abroad, often with a language focus, in which the students spend a year or a semester at a foreign university living in a dorm or apartment or sometimes with a host family. The second type is experiential, field-based study abroad in which the emphasis is on non-classroom-based learning. Most such programs have a substantial homestay period. Many experiential programs have a focus on social justice. Study topics include: gender and development, the environment, social change and the arts, multicultural societies, and Indigenous studies.

For a profile of one such successful program and a description of the steps in developing an experiential program, see “ICADS in Central America,” an interview with Sandra Kinghorn, and “Experiential Education: Enriching Study Abroad Through Immersion Learning Programs” by Heather Ford in the November/December 1998 issue of Transitions Abroad. Other examples of experiential programs include the School for International Training College Semester Abroad’s “Nicaragua: Revolution, Transformation and Development.” The semester is spent studying the history and politics of both Nicaragua and Cuba, economics and development, culture and identity, and social movements and civil society. The program consists of a seven-week homestay in Managua, a week-long visit to a rural village, and a field trip to Cuba. The Center for Global Education offers an experiential semester program called “Multicultural Societies in Transition: Southern African Perspectives” based in Windhoek, Namibia with homestays with rural and urban Namibian families, regional travel in Namibia, and a two-week seminar in South Africa. Courses are offered in political and social change, the development process, history, and religion. These and programs like them focus on more than just learning a language; they attempt to foster a deepened understanding of a country and its people that goes far beyond what a tourist or even a student on a traditional program would ever learn. For descriptions of experiential programs look under “Directed Field Study” in the new editions of Academic Year Abroad and Vacation Study Abroad (Institute of International Education).

Impacts of Educational Travel

To determine whether study abroad really constitutes a form of alternative tourism, I looked for studies on the impacts of educational travel. Not surprisingly, there is little data: the study abroad literature looks mostly at the effects on the students, while the anthropology of tourism literature emphasizes effects on the hosts.

Students who study abroad report that the programs helped them make career and life choices, attain skills in intercultural communication, improve problem solving skills and field research techniques, and gain respect for cultural differences. Students are introduced to new ways of seeing and thinking which challenge old assumptions and beliefs. Third World travel especially leads to a greater understanding of self and a confronting of U.S. values concerning consumerism, individualism, and race-based identity. Students return with a greater global-mindedness. In general, the most commonly observed impacts on students who studied abroad are better foreign language proficiency, more knowledge about the culture, politics, and society of the host country, and altered stereotypes.

The results are not so clear, however, when one takes into account the self-selection of students. Many students who go abroad, as compared to ones who stay at home, may be inclined to a broader world view. One study showed no increase in international understanding because the students who went were already previously concerned about international issues.

An unpublished study by Skye Stephenson for the CIEE on its semester abroad program in Santiago, Chile includes host families. The main focus of the study was to examine all parties involved with the exchange program, not only the students but the professors and host families as well. “The premise of this study is that not only exchange students but members of the host society who come into contact with them are impacted by the cross-cultural experience,” Stephenson writes. By surveying the students upon arrival and again at departure the author found that it was difficult for the students to adjust to cultural and value differences and that their experience was more stressful than anticipated. The strongest impact on the host families was a “reaffirming [of] their own sense of being Chilean and in gaining a deeper appreciation of their own culture.”

Planning and Preparation

The limited studies available point to the conclusion that study abroad can be a form of responsible travel when there is an equal exchange between students and hosts. This can happen only when an effort is made on the part of program organizers and students to understand the deeper issues in the cross-cultural experience. Design, preparation, curriculum, orientation, and a homestay period are key elements in a program that can make for a positive experience for all.

If students live in an apartment or dorm with other Americans, their contact with the local people is limited. Economic or social class is also an issue: If privileged U.S. students go to a foreign university with privileged foreign students, as Chip Peterson points out in a 1997 column in this magazine, they may never really experience the broad cultural differences of their new environment.

Works Cited (Study Abroad and Tourism)

Study Abroad:

Bachner, David and Ulrich, Zeutschel. 1994. Utilizing the Effects of Youth Exchange: A Study of the Subsequent Lives of German and American High School Exchange Participants. New York: Council on International Education Exchange

Bates, Judy. 1997. The Effects of Study Abroad on Undergraduates in an Honors International Program. Dissertation Abstracts International. Vol. 58-11A:4162, Univ. of South Carolina.

Carlson, Jerry S., Barbara Burn, John Useem and David Yachimowicz. Study Abroad: The Experience of American Undergraduates. Westport: CT: Greenwood Press.

Kauffmann, Norman L., Judith N. Martin, Henry D. Weaver and Judy Weaver. 1992. Students Abroad: Strangers at Home. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Opper, Susan, Ulrich Teichler and Jerry Carlson. 1990. Impacts of Study Abroad Programs on Students and Graduates. London: Jessica Kinglsey Publishers.

Peterson, Chip. 1997. “Class and Study Abroad: Combining Concern and Compassion with Critical Analysis.” Transitions Abroad. July/August.

Sommer, John. 1997. “Creditable Study Abroad: Experiential Learning and Academic Rigor.” Transitions Abroad. November/December.

Stangor, Charles, Klaus Jonas, Stroebe, Wolfgang and Hewstone, Miles. 1996. “Influence of Student Exchange on National Stereotpyes, Attitudes and Perceived Group Variability.” European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 26:663-675.

Stephenson, Skye. 1998. “Two Cultures Under One Roof: The Exchange Experience as a Transformational Phenomenon: A Study of its Impact Upon Exchange Students, Host Families and University Professors.” Council Study Center-Chile. Unpublished paper.

Vande Berg, Michael. 1997. “Challenging Value Primacies: Educational Awakening Beyond the Comfort Zones.” Transitions Abroad. May/June.

Churchill, R. 1958. “The Student Abroad.” Antioch Review, 18:447-454.

Tourism:

Abram, Simone, MacLeod, Donald V.L., Waldren, Jacqueline. 1997. Tourists and Tourism: Identifying with People and Places. New York: Berg.

Butler, Richard, 1992. “Alternative Tourism: The Thin Edge of the Wedge.” In Smith, eds. 1992. Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

Cohen, Erik. 1993. “The Study of Touristic Images of Native Peoples: Mitigating the Stereotype of a Stereotype.” In Pearce eds. 1993. Tourism Research: Critiques and Challenges. New York: Routledge.

deKadt, Emanuel. 1992. “Making the Alternative Sustainable: Lessons from Development for Tourism.” In Smith, eds. 1992. Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

MacCannell. 1976. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. New York: Schochken Books.

1992. Empty Meeting Grounds: The Tourist Papers. New York: Routledge.

McLaren, Deborah. 1998. Rethinking Tourism and Ecotravel: The Paving of Paradise and What You Can Do To Stop It. W. Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Pearce, Douglas. 1995. Tourism Today: A Geographical Analysis. 2nd edition. Essex: Longman Group, Ltd.

Pearce, Douglas and Butler, Richard W., eds. 1993. Tourism Research: Critiques and Challenges. New York: Routledge.

Smith, Valene L. and Eadington, William R., eds. 92. Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennysvania Press.

van den Berghe, Pierre L. and Keys, Charles F. 1984. Tourism and Re-created Ethnicity.” Annals of Tourism Research, 11:343-352.

SHOSHANNA SUMKA is a graduate student in applied anthropology at the Univ. of Maryland. She is a past participant in the School for International Training’s semester in Sumatra, Indonesia and a former leader for the Experiment in International Living’s summer program in Ecuador.

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The University of Texas at Austin, with its main campus no more than a mile away from the State Capitol of Texas, is the famous research university at the heart of Texas. As part of the University of Texas System, UT Austin is consistently well attended since its founding in 1883. In 2007, it had the fifth largest fall-season enrolment in the nation. In Texas, it holds the record for the largest enrolment amongst all the local colleges.

The university is noted for the J. J. Pickle Research Campus, an academic research center. In addition, there are other auxiliary facilities and programs that the university operates. Interested parties, students meaning to enroll, or tourists can go on campus walking tours to see the UT Austin for themselves. Aside from the regular day tours there is the nighttime Moonlight Prowl guided tour. Also available is the Tower Observation Deck Tour, taking place at the observation deck of the Tower, the university’s landmark. It is a premium to see the architecture, the construction, the interiors, for yourself.

university-of-texas-posters

Public art is a main attraction at the University of Texas at Austin campus. Landmarks is a collection of the finest public art-works on campus. Sculpture is a feature in the online Campus Statues Tour highlighting the more notable statues and other landmark sculptures in the campus.

Go back in time when you take the historic Main Building Tour either online, to sample the architecture, the sights and sounds, the personalities behind the making of the Main Building, or on an actual day tour of the building itself. With the Victorian-Gothic style of old being retained as much as possible, the new Main Building with its modern day tower is one hallmark of the campus you cannot afford to miss.

University of Texas in Austin also plays host to seventeen libraries, 7 museums, a football stadium, a Student Activities Center, the Gregory Gym, the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, the Blanton Museum of the Arts. Art, history, activity, all rolled into one. There can never be an idle time for the intellectually and physically aroused in the campus. There is KUT, a public radio station operated by the university to provide internet streaming audio and regular FM radio broadcasts.

If you really want to see everything there is to discover in the University of Texas at Austin, time your visit for the biggest Texan open house: the Explore UT yearly open house. Every year the university plays host to Texans to discover for themselves the wonders of the UT Austin Campus. From guided tours to special performances, from lectures to demonstrations, from interactive and other do-it-yourself activities, the Explore UT is one event that bares them all about the university.

The UT Austin campus sits on 3.4 square kilometers of land inclusive of the main campus and the research center campus in North Austin housing the J. J. Pickle Research. To get there, Capitol Metro provides regular bus transport, both for students and tourists in-campus and all around Austin. 

Joe Cline writes articles for Round Rock Texas. Other articles written by the author related to Austin Remax REALTOR and Austin new home builders can be found on the net.

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